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美国驻华大使馆和领事馆:特朗普总统在签署针对中国侵入性经济行为发布的总统备忘录时发表讲话

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美国驻华大使馆和领事馆:特朗普总统在签署针对中国侵入性经济行为发布的总统备忘录时发表讲话

March 22, 2018

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, thank you everybody.  This has been long in the making.  You’ve heard many, many speeches by me and talks by me, and interviews where I talk about unfair trade practices.  We’ve lost, over a fairly short period of time, 60,000 factories in our country — closed, shuttered, gone.  Six million jobs, at least, gone.  And now they’re starting to come back.  You see what’s happening with Chrysler, with Foxconn, with so many other companies wanting to come back into the United States.

But we have one particular problem.  And I view them as a friend; I have tremendous respect for President Xi.  We have a great relationship.  They’re helping us a lot in North Korea.  And that’s China.

But we have a trade deficit, depending on the way you calculate, of $504 billion.  Now, some people would say it’s really $375 billion.  Many different ways of looking at it, but any way you look at it, it is the largest deficit of any country in the history of our world.  It’s out of control.

We have a tremendous intellectual property theft situation going on, which likewise is hundreds of billions of dollars.  And that’s on a yearly basis.  I’ve spoken to the President.  I’ve spoken to representatives of China.  We’ve been dealing with it very seriously.

As you know, we’re renegotiating NAFTA.  We’ll see how that turns out.  Many countries are calling to negotiate better trade deals because they don’t want to have to pay the steel and aluminum tariffs.  And we are negotiating with various countries — Mr. Lighthizer, Mr. Ross.

We are just starting a negotiation with the European Union because they’ve really shut out our country to a large extent.  They have barriers that — they can trade with us but we can’t trade with them.  They’re very strong barriers.  They have very high tariffs.  We don’t.  It’s just not fair.

NAFTA has been a very bad deal for the United States, but we’ll make it better or we’ll have to do something else.  The deal we have with South Korea is a very one-sided deal.  It’s a deal that has to be changed.

So we have a lot of things happening.  But in particular, with China, we’re going to be doing a Section 301 trade action.  It could be about $60 billion but that’s really just a fraction of what we’re talking about.

I’ve been speaking with the highest Chinese representatives, including the President, and I’ve asked them to reduce the trade deficit immediately by $100 billion.  It’s a lot.  So that would be anywhere from 25 percent, depending on the way you figure, to maybe something even more than that.  But we have to do that.

The word that I want to use is “reciprocal.”  When they charge 25 percent for a car to go in, and we charge 2 percent for their car to come into the United States, that’s not good.  That’s how China rebuilt itself.  The tremendous money that we’ve paid since the founding of the World Trade Organization — which has actually been a disaster for us.  It’s been very unfair to us.  The arbitrations are very unfair.  The judging has been very unfair.  And knowingly, we always have a minority and it’s not fair.

So we’re talking to World Trade, we’re talking to NAFTA, we’re talking to China, we’re talking to the European Union.  And I will say, every single one of them wants to negotiate.  And I believe that, in many cases — maybe all cases — we’ll end up negotiating a deal.

So we’ve spoken to China and we’re in the midst of a very large negotiation.  We’ll see where it takes us.  But in the meantime, we are sending a Section 301 action.  I’ll be signing it right here, right now.  I’d like to ask Bob Lighthizer to say a few words about the 301 and where we are in that negotiation.

And we’re doing things for this country that should have been done for many, many years.  We’ve had this abuse by many other countries and groups of countries that were put together in order to take advantage of the United States, and we don’t want that to happen.  We’re not going to let that happen.  It’s probably one of the reasons I was elected; maybe one of the main reasons.  But we’re not going to let that happen.

We have, right now, an $800 billion trade deficit with the world.  So think of that.  So let’s say we have 500 to 375, but let’s say we have 500 with China, but we have 800 total with the world.  That would mean that China is more than half.  So we’re going to get it taken care of.  And, frankly, it’s going to make us a much stronger, much richer nation.

The word is “reciprocal.”  That’s the word I want everyone to remember.  We want reciprocal — mirror.  Some people call it a mirror tariff or a mirror tax.  Just use the word reciprocal.  If they charge us, we charge them the same thing.  That’s the way it’s got to be.  That’s not the way it is.  For many, many years — for many decades, it has not been that way.

And I will say, the people we’re negotiating with — smilingly, they really agree with us.  I really believe they cannot believe they’ve gotten away with this for so long.

I’ll talk to Prime Minister Abe of Japan and others — great guy, friend of mine — and there will be a little smile on their face.  And the smile is, “I can’t believe we’ve been able to take advantage of the United States for so long.”  So those days are over.

Ambassador Lighthizer, thank you.

AMBASSADOR LIGHTHIZER:  Well, thank you very much, Mr. President.  First of all, for those of you who don’t know, Section 301 is a statute that gives substantial power, authority to the President to correct actions in certain circumstances where there’s unfair acts, policies, or practices by our trading partners.

In this case, the area is technology.  Technology is probably the most important part of our economy.  There’s 44 million people who work in high-tech knowledge areas.  No country has as much technology-intensive industry as the United States.  And technology is really the backbone of the future of the American economy.

Given these problems, the President asked USTR to conduct a study.  We conducted a thorough study.  We had hearings.  We reviewed tens of thousands of pages of documents.  We talked to many, many business people.  We had testimony, as I say.

And we concluded that, in fact, China does have a policy of forced technology transfer; of requiring licensing at less than economic value; of state capitalism, wherein they go in and buy technology in the United States in non-economic ways; and then, finally, of cyber theft.

The result of this has been that the President has analyzed it — we have a 200-page study which we will put out — and he has concluded that we should put in place tariffs on appropriate products — we can explain later how we concluded what products they are; that we would put investment restrictions on China with respect to high technology; and that we’ll file a WTO case.  Because one of the actions here does involve a WTO violation.

This is an extremely important action, very significant and very important for the future of the country, really, across industries.  And I would really like to thank you very much, Mr. President, for giving me the opportunity to work on it.

2018年3月22日

总统:?#34892;?#35832;位。此事由来已久。你们都听到我很多次讲话,听到我接受的采访,谈?#35762;?#20844;平的贸易行为。我们损失不小,在相当短的时期内,我国60,000所工厂被关闭,倒闭,消失。至少600万工作消失。现在他们正开始回归。你们看见克莱斯勒(Chrysler)、富士康(Foxconn)等众多公司都希望回归美国。

但是我们有一个特别的问题。我视他们为朋友;我十分尊重习主席。我们有良好的关系。他们在北朝鲜问题上为我们提供了很多帮助。这就是中国。

但是我们有贸易逆差,5,040亿美元的逆差,取决于你如何计算。现在,有人会说,实际上是3,750亿美元。对这个问题有很多不同的看法,但?#20405;?#35201;注意一下,就知?#21202;?#26159;我们这个世界有史以来任何国?#39029;?#29616;的最大幅度的逆差,已经到了失控的地步。

我们面临大量知识产权被盗的局面,其数额可达千百亿美元之多。而且这只是按年份计算。我向国家主席谈到这一点。我向一些中国代表谈到这一点。我们采取很认真的态度对待这个问题。

众所周知,我们正在就北美自由贸易协定(NAFTA)进行谈?#23567;?#25105;们将对其结果拭目?#28304;?#24456;多国家都要求谈判达成更好的贸易协定,因为他们不希望为钢铁和铝制品缴纳关税。我们正与各国进行谈?#23567;?#33713;特希泽先生(Mr. Lighthizer),罗斯先生(Mr. Ross)。

我们刚开?#21152;?#27431;洲联盟(European Union)谈判,因为他们实际上在很大程度上对我国关闭了大门。他们有各?#30452;?#22418;——他们可以到我们这里进行贸易,但我们不能到他们那里开展贸易。他们有很强的壁垒。他们有很高的关税。我们没?#23567;?#36825;很不公平。

北美自由贸易协定对美国来说是一个很糟糕的协定,但我们会加以?#32435;疲?#25110;者我们可以另起炉灶。我们与韩国的协定具有很强的单向性。这个协定必须有所改变。

所以,我们面临很多问题。但是,特别在中国问题?#24076;?#25105;们将按301条款采取贸易行动。其数额可达600亿美元,但是在我们谈到的问题中,这只是一小部分。

我曾与中国最高代表进行交谈,包括国家主席。我要求他们立即将贸易逆差降低1,000亿美元。这个数额不小。所以,根据采用的计算方式,可能约合25%,或许可能需要更多。但我们必须这样做。

我希望采用的词是“reciprocal?#20445;?#20114;惠)。他们对一辆进口车征收25%的税,而我们对他们进口到美国的车只征收2%。这不合理。这正是中国重建的方式。自世界贸易组织(World Trade Organization)成立以来,我们付出了大量金钱,实际上成为我们的一大灾?#36873;?#36825;对我们很不公平。仲裁很不公平。判决很不公平。尽人皆知,我们总是少数,这并不公平。

所以,我们在和世贸组织谈,在和《北美自由贸易协定》国家谈,我们在和中国谈,我们在和欧洲联盟谈。我要说,他们每一方都希望谈?#23567;?#25105;相信,在很多情况下——也许在所有情况下——我们最后都会进行交易谈?#23567;?

所以,我们已经和中国谈了话,我们正在进行一场很大规模谈?#23567;?#25105;们将看?#27492;?#20250;把我们带向何方。但与此同时,我们正在?#36152;?#19968;项《301条款》行动。我将就在这里,就在现在签署它。我想请鲍勃·莱特希泽(Bob Lighthizer)就《301》以及我们这个谈判的情况?#24067;?#21477;话。

我们正在为这个国?#26131;?#26089;在许多许多年前就应该做的事。我们受到了其他许多国家和国家集团的伤害,组成那些集团就是为了占美国的便宜,我们不希望?#20405;智?#20917;出现。我们不会让?#20405;智?#20917;出现。这大概就是我当选的原因之一;也许?#20405;?#35201;原因之一。但我们不会让?#20405;智?#20917;出现。

目前,我们与世界有8,000亿美元贸易赤字。那么想想看。让我们说我们有5,000到3,750,不,让我们说我们与中国有5,000,而我们与世界有8,000。这就是说中国?#23478;话?#20197;上。所以我们要解决这点。坦率说,这将使我们成为一个强大得多,富裕得多的国家。

这里的用词是“互惠”。我希望每个人都记住这个?#30465;?#25105;们要互惠——镜像。?#34892;?#20154;将它称作镜像关税或镜像税。就?#27809;?#24800;这个?#30465;?#22914;果他们对我们收费,我们也同样对他们收?#36873;?#24517;须得是这样。现在不是这样。许多、许多年以来——好几十年以来,都不是这样。

我要说,我们正在与之谈判的人——笑着,他们的确赞同我们。我确实相信,他们无法相信他们能得手这么久。

我将和日本首相安倍(Abe)以及其他人——一个了不起的人,我的朋?#36873;?#35848;话,他们脸上将会有一丝微笑。这个微笑就是,“我无法相信我们能?#35805;?#32654;国利用了这么长时间。”所以,那些日子结束了。

谢谢你,莱特希泽大使。

而且我要说,我们与之进行谈判的人士——面带微笑地,他们的确同意我们的看法。我确实相信,他们都不能相信能被听之任之这么长时间。

莱特希泽大使:非常?#34892;?#24744;,总统先生。首先,要对你们当中不了解情况的人说明,301条款是一项给予总统重大权利、授权的法规,用以在我们的贸易伙伴采取不公平的行动、政策或措施的特定情况下纠正措施。

此次的有关领域是科技。科技可谓我们的经济中最重要的部分。有4,400万人在高科技知识领域工作。任?#25105;?#20010;国家?#27982;?#26377;像美国这样?#38469;?#23494;集的产业。而且科技的确是美国经济前景的支柱。

鉴于这些问题,总统要求美国贸易代表办公室进行一项调查。我们进行了一项彻底调查。我们举行了听证会。我们审核了几万页文件。我们同许许多多商贸人士进行了交谈。正如我所?#35029;?#25105;们得到了证?#30465;?

我们?#36152;?#30340;结论是,事实?#24076;?#20013;国确有有关政策,强制?#38469;?#36716;让?#36824;?#23450;低于经济价值的许可批准;国?#26131;时?#20027;义,他们来到美国以非经济方式购买科技;以及最后一点,网络盗窃。

其结果是,总统进行了分析——我们有一份200页的调查将会发布——并且?#36152;?#32467;论,我们应当对适当的产品实行关税——我们可以稍后解释我们是如何确定这些产品的;我们应当在高科技领域对中国实行投资限制;而且我们将提起一项世贸组织立案。因为这类行为之一的确涉及一例违反世贸组织规定的问题。

这是一项极其重要的措施,对于国家的前途非常重大、非常重要,确实如此,涉及各个产业。而且我的确想要非常?#34892;?#24744;,总统先生,给我这个机会从事这项工作。

摘译:特朗普总统在签署针对中国侵入性经济行为发布的总统备忘录时发表讲话 | 美国驻华大使馆和领事馆  https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/zh/excerpts-remarks-by-president-trump-at-signing-of-a-presidential-memorandum-targeting-chinas-economic-aggression/

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